Гришуолдовская девятка и студенческий активизм за равенство
Гарвардском факультете права на начале 1990-х (The Griswold
and Student Activism for Faculty Diversity at Harvard Law
School in the Early 1990s // Harvard BlackLetter Law
Spring, 2011. 27 Harv. J. Racial & Ethnic Just. 49)
Опубликовано: Harvard BlackLetter Law Journal. Spring, 2011. 27 Harv. J.
Racial & Ethnic Just. 49
о единственном случае СУТЯЖНИчества студентов юридического
факультета Гарварда против факультета, о единственном случае
"захвата" кабинета декана, об одном из героев-студентов,
кующих историю, о роли Достоевского в американском
... Sullivan, and many others, took ownership of what they had done while students at HLS by creating a scrapbook detailing the history of student activism at HLS focusing on faculty diversity issues, including the Griswold 9's sit-in and subsequent trial, CCR's lawsuit, and Professor Bell's protest from 1990 to 1992. ... Second, I contend that the students framed the issue of faculty diversity into an inclusive conception--incorporating the diversity of the members in the coalition--that facilitated solidarity among many different groups of students. ... Four White Males Appointed to Tenured Positions Despite ongoing discussions between the students and Dean Clark regarding hiring more minority and women faculty members, on Friday, February 28, 1992, without informing the students beforehand, HLS made tenure offers to four white men --two of whom were visiting professors. ... As the meeting concluded, one of the students asked President Rudenstine how he felt about the overwhelming presence of white men on Harvard's faculty, the tenure of four more white men, and the impending loss of Professor Bell--who represents one-third of the tenured African American professors and one-sixth of the tenured and tenure-track African American faculty at the law school. ... Around fifty protestors arrived at Griswold Hall throughout the day; however, when the Harvard University Police restricted access to the corridor outside the Dean's office, many students left the area--the Griswold 9 remained. ... Later in the afternoon, Dean Clark arrived and talked with Griswold 9 members Charisse Carney and Derek Honore, and incoming Black Law Students Association President and CCR member Ronald S. ... Defense counsels Professor Terry Fisher and Peter Cicchino, using the same provisions in the Statement of Rights and Responsibilities, argued that there is nothing "normal" about discrimination so the "normal duties and obligations" of the University were not infringed upon by the students' sit-in. ... Bonifaz and Anspach both played key roles in organizing CCR activism. ... Finally, Dean Clark's comments in the Wall Street Journal explaining the activism as being caused by self-esteem issues that arise as symptoms of affirmative action provoked the students to further escalate their protests.
HIGHLIGHT: This article reconstructs a mostly forgotten moment in Harvard Law School history when the students organized in the early 1990s across race, gender, sexual orientation, and ability and disability lines to push for faculty diversity. The new student coalition, called the Coalition for Civil Rights, gave the students' activism unusual momentum. This initiative included the first time that law students, acting pro se, sued their law school for discrimination in faculty hiring and the first time Harvard Law School students were publically tried by their school's Administrative Board for conducting an overnight sit-in at the Dean's office (i.e., the Griswold 9 incident). Drawing upon social movement theory, the author analyzes why the activism was so robust during this time period by applying the concepts of signaling, framing, and resource mobilization to the actions of the students. The author argues that the unprecedented diversity of the coalition contributed to the activism's intensity in key ways. First, the protests by this diverse group signaled to the entire student body that the faculty diversity movement was gaining momentum. Second, the ways in which the coalition members framed an inclusive conception of diversity created a sense of strong group cohesion among students. Third, the diversity of the group served as a resource that enhanced the coalition's problem solving abilities. The author concludes that although the most vigorous activism was relatively short-lived, the students that were involved in this coalition were nonetheless successful in making their voices heard by Harvard University and the general public.
At some point, demands for change have an unacknowledged effect. Those in authority eventually come to see the value of diversity and even take credit for doing what they should have done much earlier. But it is the Harvard Law School students who deserve credit for [a tenured faculty appointment for a woman of color], and they can now celebrate this positive step.